Sphere Technology Connection Ltd.

Cutting Edge Technology For  Carbon Capture,  Utilization and Storage, 24th-27th September, 2017, Novotel Hotel and Conference Center, Clermont Ferrand, France




NAtural Gas Hydrates Course

Acid gas Injection By John Carroll at Gas Liquids Engineering.



Acid gas injection (AGI) was developed in Western Canada and it has become the method of choice to monetize small reserves of sour natural gas. AGI is an environmentally friend way to deal with hydrogen sulfide producing almost no sulfurous emissions. It also plays an important role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions from gas processing plants. AGI is also an option for larger producer who do not want to produce elemental sulfur. Many of the principles in AGI can be directly transferred to the emerging technology of carbon capture and storage (CCS).

The course is a treatment of the important subject acid gas injection. This course provides the following information: (1) A discussion of the relevant physical properties of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and acid gas mixtures, (2) A detailed review of the water content of acid gas mixtures and its relevance to the injection process. (3) Selection of an injection zone. (4) Considerations for the design of an acid gas compressor. (5) Health and safety concerns. Case studies from actual injection schemes showing the application of the design principles are presented, many worked on by the instructor.
The instructor has experience with AGI both from a theoretical point of view (physical properties, phase equilibri-um, engineering design, etc.) and in the field where he has worked on more than 20 projects. He is the author of the book Acid Gas Injection and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.

Time spent in the course is eligible for Profession Development Hours and a certificate will be issued after the course is finished, signed by the instructor and the organizer.


1. Introduction
     1.1 Natural Gas – Sweet and Sour
     1.2 Sweetening Natural Gas
     1.3 Acid Gas
     1.4 What is acid gas injection?
2. Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide
     2.1 Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide
     2.2 Properties of Carbon Dioxide
     2.3 Properties of Acid Gas Mixtures
     2.4 Effect of Hydrocarbons
3. Phase Equilibrium in Acid Gas
     3.1 Description
     3.2 Calculation of Phase Equilibrium
4. Water Content of Acid Gas
     4.1 Water Content of Sweet Gas
     4.2 Water Content of Acid Gas
     4.3 Water Content of Liquids

5. Hydrates
     5.1 Introduction to Hydrates
     5.2 Hydrates of Acid Gas
     5.3 Hydrate Forming Conditions
     5.4 Mitigation of Hydrate Formation
6. Injection Profiles
     6.1 Calculation of Injection Profiles
     6.2 Effect of Hydrocarbons
7. Compressor Design
     7.1 Basic Design
     7.2 Phase Equilibrium
     7.3 Water Knockout
8. Selection of Injection Zone
9. Cost Estimates
10. Health, Safety, and Environment
     10.1 Emergency Planning
11. Case Studies

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