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Cutting Edge Technology For  Carbon Capture,  Utilization and Storage, 24th-27th September, 2017, Novotel Hotel and Conference Center, Clermont Ferrand, France

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ACID GAS INJECTION COURSE

UNDERSTANDING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES by John Carroll at Gas Liquids engineering

DOWNLOAD COURSE BROCHURE HERE

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Gas hydrates are ice-like solids that form at temperatures above the freezing point of water. They are frequently en-countered in the natural gas industry where water and hydrate forming molecules are in mixtures under pressure. However they are also found in other processes such as the olefins and other chemical process and in nature. The hydrates are notorious for plugging flow lines and damaging equipment. One must be careful when handling hydrate plugs or death could result!
      This course covers many topics related to gas hydrates including: What are gas hydrates? Under what conditions do they form?  What can be done to prevent them? How do you safely deal with them?
This intensive course is designed for engineers and scientists who work in the natural gas industry and other industries where water is present under pressure. Senior operating personnel may also benefit from attending. Those in attendance will receive a set of note and the option to buy the book “ Natural Gas Hydrates: A Guide for Engineers” at a discounted price.
      The instructor has experience with hydrates in the lab and in the field and is the author of the book “Natural Gas Hydrates: A Guide for Engineers”.
      Time spent in the course is eligible for Profession Development Hours and a certificate will be issued after the course is finished, signed by the instructor and the organizer.

COURSE OUTLINE

1. The water molecule and the hydrogen bond
     1.1 Water is different (Periodic table)
           Boiling point
           Enthalpy of vaporization
           Expansion upon freezing
     1.2 The structure of ice
     1.3 Sublimation
     1.4 Is “free water” necessary for forming hydrates?
2. What is a hydrate?
     2.1 The three criteria for hydrate formation
3. Hydrate and non-hydrate formers
     3.1 Type I
     3.2 Type II
     3.3 Type H
     3.4 Structures of the hydrates
     3.5 How the size of the molecule effects hydrate formation
4. Hydrate compositions
     4.1 Theoretical composition
     4.2 Actual compositions
5. Calculation of hydrate forming conditions
     5.1 Hand calculation methods
           Gas gravity methods
           K- Factor methods
           Bailie-Wichert
     5.2 Advanced calculation methods (software calculations)
           van der Waals and Platteeuw
           Parish and Prausnitz
           Ng and Robinson

6. Combating hydrate formation
     6.1 Chemicals
     *  Thermodynamic inhibitors
            Hammerschmidt equation:
            Carroll methods
            Ionic solutions (brine)
     *  Low-dose inhibitors
            Kinetic inhibitors (KI)
            Anti-agglomerates (AA)
            Inhibitor losses
     *  Other inhibitor considerations
     6.2 Heat
      *   line heaters
      *   heat tracing
     6.3 Dehydration
7. Water content of gas
     7.1 Sweet gas
     7.2 Sour gas
     7.3 Acid gas
8. Phase Diagrams
     8.1 Use of phase diagrams to interpret processes
9. Advanced topics
Note:
Case studies will be throughout this course.

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